tempered glass

TEMPERED GLASS

Stages of glass creation

First stage
glass
glass
 Sand is melted to a liquid state in a special furnace. Quartz sand melts at a temperature of 2300 degrees Celsius. Adding sodium carbonate (soda) reduces the temperature required for glass formation to 1500 degrees Celsius. However, soda causes water to corrode the glass. Therefore, to neutralize this phenomenon, calcium oxide (lime) is additionally introduced into the glass.

Second stage
 Depending on the purpose of the glass, other chemicals are added to this mixture. The most common additive for decorative glass is lead oxide, which provides shine as well as low hardness to facilitate cutting. To make the glass more resistant, it is injected oxides of magnesium or aluminum.

Third stage
 To give the glass the desired shade, oxides of various metals are added to the molten mass. For example, with the help of iron oxide it is made red, nickel oxide is violet or brown, and uranium oxide is yellow. Copper or chrome give it a green color in different shades.

Fourth stage
 Gas bubbles are removed from the molten mass of sand, soda, lime and other components. This involves stirring the glass to a uniform thickness and adding substances such as sulfate or sodium chloride, antimony oxide.

glass
glass
Fifth stage
 Molten glass is shaped.

Sixth stage
 The glass is allowed to cool, after which it is again subjected to heat treatment. This is done to make the glass more durable. This process is called annealing, when it removes all the point sources of stress that can be formed in the process of cooling the glass.

Seventh stage
 At the final stage, various coatings are applied to glass, laminated or treated in some other way to increase strength and durability. Sheet glass is cut into standard sheets.

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